Bio-Behavioral Surveillance Survey among Men who have Sex with Men in two major cities of Georgia, 2015

Bio-Behavioral Surveillance Survey among Men who have Sex with Men in two major cities of Georgia, 2015

Curatio International Foundation continues implementation of Bio-Behavioral Surveillance Surveys (BBS) among Key Affected Populations (KAP’s) with the aim to measure HIV prevalence among KAP’s, monitor risk behaviors among these groups and generate evidence for advocacy and policy-making.

The current study describes the most recent wave of BBS surveys among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Georgia (Bio-BBS surveys among MSM have been implemented since 2007).  Study also was looking at HCV and STI (Syphilis) prevalence among MSM. CIF implemented this study together with partner organisations – Center for Information and Counseling on Reproductive Health – Tanadgoma and the Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center.

The study used a cross-sectional design and respondent‐driven sampling methodology (RDS). A sample of 415 MSM18 years and older were recruited in the survey in two major cities of Georgia: Tbilisi and Batumi.

The study was financially supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM).

Major findings:

Socio-demographic characteristics

  • The median age was 28 years in Tbilisi and 29 – in Batumi, majority had secondary level education, had never been married, big proportion of MSM had permanent work, and majority’s monthly income was less than 500 GEL.
  • The study did not reveal high proportion of heavy alcohol use or injecting drug use, indicating that there is no overlap with key populations such as MSM and PWID.

Sexual behavior

  • MSM had different types of both male and female sex partners (regular, occasional and commercial).  The median number of male partners (anal/oral partners) in the last 12 months 6 in Tbilisi and 5 – in Batumi. Tbilisi number is higher than that of 2010.
  • Out of MSM that reported anal partner during the last year, 63.2% in Tbilisi and 78.8% – in Batumi used a condom during their last anal sexual contact. Condom use at last AI in Tbilisi in 2015 slightly higher compared to 2010 (61.7%).
  • Overall more than 50% of MSM reported having female sex partner  (regular, occasional or paid) during the last 12 months- 55.4% in Tbilisi and 53% in Batumi. More than two thirds (71.2% in Tbilisi and 65.9% in Batumi) said they used a condom at last sexual intercourse with their female partner.Since 2010 there is increase in condom use at last sex with female partners in Tbilisi. As for Batumi, this rate is also high.

Condoms and lubricants

  • There was a slight increase in the proportion of MSM who reported receipt of condoms from preventive programs during the last 12 months in Tbilisi from 40.3% in 2010 to 43.5% in 2015.
  • Awareness about condoms stays high.
  • Awareness about the lubricants as well as their reported use during the last AI has improved vastly in Tbilisi and is also high in Batumi. These are higher indicators compared to the previous surveys, which can be explained by provision of free lubricants by preventive programs, started since 2014.

HIV knowledge and HIV testing practice

  • Knowledge and testing on HIV showed significant improvement in Tbilisi since 2010 – from 19.9% in 2010 to 30.4% in 2015 (p (2-tailed), 0.001). In Batumi this indicator was measured the first time and reached 35.2%.
  • During the recent five years there is statistically significant improvement in MSM awareness where to get HIV test in case of necessity (p < 0.001), as well as in the proportion of MSM who were tested during the last 12 months and received results (p< 0.001). This can be explained by sustainable use of HIV rapid (finger prick) testing in the outreach under preventive programs, which makes HIV testing easily accessible to the target group.
  • Researchers also measured increase in testing uptake from 2012 to 2015, and it was also statistically significant (p (2tailed) – 0.07).


  • Survey participants reported that they have experienced violence because of sexual orientation or homosexual behaviour in the last 12 months (32% in Tbilisi and 4.7% in Batumi). In Tbilisi violence rate has increased significantly compared to 2012.

Program coverage / media

  • Coverage by preventive intervention measured by awareness of where to get a HIV test and receipt of a condom during the last 12 months increased from 20.9% in 2010 to 43.5% in 2015 in Tbilisi. In Batumi coverage is quite high – about 40%.
  • NGOs, internet and friends seem to be the major and best way for conveying messages to MSM.

HIV, HCV and Syphilis prevalence

  • The most alarming finding of this study is increase in HIV prevalence in Tbilisi from 6.4% in 2010 to 25.1% in 2015. During last five years we observe three-fold increase of HIV prevalence. Batumi HIV prevalence is also very high – 22.3%.
  • Syphilis was detected in 35% of the MSM in Tbilisi and 24.6% – in Batumi.As for syphilis, its prevalence is quite high but does not show difference compared to 2010 results.
  • Hepatitis C prevalence was 7% in Tbilisi but much higher in Batumi – 18.9%

Full study report is available here.

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